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Fasoracetam’s Potential in Addressing ADHD

Fasoracetam and ADHD


Overview of ADHD as a Neurodevelopmental Disorder

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) stands as a prominent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent patterns of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that significantly impair daily functioning and quality of life. ADHD is prevalent in both children and adults, affecting individuals across cultures and socioeconomic backgrounds. This article provides a concise overview of ADHD, shedding light on its etiology, symptoms, and impact.

Etiology and Underlying Factors:

The exact cause of ADHD remains multifaceted and not entirely understood. However, a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurological factors is believed to contribute to its development. Genetics play a substantial role, with studies suggesting that ADHD tends to run in families. Certain genes related to dopamine regulation and brain development have been implicated in the disorder.

Neurological factors involve alterations in brain structure and function. Neuroimaging studies have revealed differences in brain areas responsible for attention, impulse control, and executive functions in individuals with ADHD. Specifically, areas such as the prefrontal cortex, which governs cognitive processes like decision-making and impulse control, show differences in size and activity.

Symptoms and Diagnostic Criteria:

ADHD presents with a range of symptoms that fall into two main categories: inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. Individuals with ADHD may exhibit various degrees of these symptoms, leading to three subtypes of the disorder: predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, and combined presentation.

Inattention Symptoms:

  • Difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or activities
  • Frequent careless mistakes in schoolwork or tasks
  • Trouble organizing tasks and activities
  • Avoidance of tasks requiring sustained mental effort
  • Frequently losing items necessary for tasks

Hyperactivity-Impulsivity Symptoms:

  • Fidgeting or tapping hands or feet
  • Inability to stay seated when expected
  • Running or climbing in inappropriate situations
  • Difficulty engaging in activities quietly
  • Impulsive interrupting or blurting out answers in conversations

Impact on Daily Life:

ADHD’s impact extends beyond its symptomatic criteria, affecting various aspects of an individual’s life. In children, it can hinder academic performance, social relationships, and emotional development. Adults with ADHD often experience challenges in maintaining stable employment, organization, and time management. The disorder can also exacerbate co-occurring conditions, such as anxiety, depression, and substance abuse.

Treatment Approaches:

The management of ADHD involves a multimodal approach that combines behavioral interventions, psychoeducation, and, in some cases, medication. Behavioral therapies, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and parent training, help individuals develop coping strategies and organizational skills to manage symptoms effectively. Psychoeducation aims to enhance understanding of the disorder and its impact on daily life, reducing stigma and facilitating self-advocacy.

Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate and amphetamines, are commonly prescribed to alleviate ADHD symptoms. These medications enhance the availability of certain neurotransmitters, like dopamine, which are associated with attention and impulse control. Non-stimulant medications, such as atomoxetine, are also available for individuals who may not respond well to stimulants or have contraindications.

Traditional Treatment Approaches Involving Stimulant Medications

Treating neurodevelopmental disorders like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), stimulant medications have long stood as a cornerstone of therapeutic intervention. These medications, which primarily include methylphenidate and amphetamines, have played a pivotal role in alleviating the core symptoms of ADHD and enhancing the quality of life for countless individuals.

Mechanism of Action:

Stimulant medications work by influencing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, notably dopamine and norepinephrine. These neurotransmitters play a crucial role in regulating attention, focus, impulse control, and executive functions. In individuals with ADHD, there is often an imbalance or deficiency in these neurotransmitter systems, leading to the characteristic symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

Stimulant medications enhance the availability of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, leading to improved neurotransmission in areas associated with attention and self-regulation. This enhanced neurotransmission helps individuals with ADHD better manage their symptoms and engage in tasks that demand sustained focus and organization.

Types of Stimulant Medications:

  1. Methylphenidate-Based Medications: Methylphenidate is a commonly prescribed stimulant that comes in various formulations, such as immediate-release, extended-release, and patch forms. These medications work by increasing the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain. Examples include Ritalin, Concerta, and Daytrana.

  2. Amphetamine-Based Medications: Amphetamines are another class of stimulant medications frequently prescribed for ADHD. These medications also enhance dopamine and norepinephrine signaling in the brain. Examples include Adderall, Vyvanse, and Dexedrine.

Effectiveness and Benefits:

Stimulant medications have demonstrated consistent efficacy in reducing the core symptoms of ADHD. These include improved attention, increased impulse control, and decreased hyperactivity. Many individuals experience enhanced academic and occupational performance, better interpersonal relationships, and increased self-esteem when their ADHD symptoms are effectively managed.

These medications often bring about rapid improvements, with some individuals reporting positive effects within hours of taking their first dose. Such rapid onset of action can provide immediate relief from distressing symptoms, enabling individuals to engage more effectively in various activities.

Considerations and Potential Side Effects:

While stimulant medications offer substantial benefits, they are not without considerations and potential side effects. Common side effects may include appetite suppression, insomnia, increased heart rate, and increased blood pressure. Some individuals might also experience mild mood changes or nervousness. However, these side effects are generally manageable and tend to diminish over time as the body adjusts to the medication.

There is also a potential for misuse and diversion, especially in cases where individuals without ADHD use these medications to enhance focus or productivity. Healthcare professionals closely monitor individuals on stimulant medications to ensure appropriate usage and minimize the risk of misuse.

Individualized Treatment:

Choosing the appropriate stimulant medication and dosage requires a personalized approach. Healthcare providers assess the individual’s medical history, symptom severity, and response to the medication to determine the optimal treatment plan. Regular follow-up appointments are essential to monitor progress, adjust dosages if necessary, and address any concerns or side effects.

Introducing Fasoracetam as an Emerging Alternative with Unique Mechanisms of Action

In the landscape of cognitive enhancement and neuropharmacology, the search for novel and effective alternatives to traditional treatments is a constant pursuit. Fasoracetam, a relatively recent addition to the field, has garnered attention for its potential as an emerging alternative with unique mechanisms of action. This article delves into the distinct qualities that set fasoracetam apart and its potential to address cognitive challenges.

Distinctiveness of Fasoracetam:

Fasoracetam belongs to the racetam family of compounds, a group renowned for their potential cognitive-enhancing properties. However, what distinguishes fasoracetam is its distinctive pharmacological profile and mechanisms of action. Unlike traditional stimulant medications commonly prescribed for cognitive disorders, buy fasoracetam does not directly influence dopamine or norepinephrine levels. Instead, its effects are rooted in its interactions with GABA-B receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs).

GABA-B Receptor Modulation:

At the forefront of fasoracetam’s uniqueness lies its interaction with GABA-B receptors, which plays a pivotal role in inhibitory neurotransmission. This interaction enhances the sensitivity of GABA-B receptors, ultimately leading to increased GABA release. GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, contributes to neural balance by dampening excessive neural activity. Dysregulation of GABAergic signaling has been implicated in cognitive challenges and neurodevelopmental disorders like ADHD.

By enhancing GABAergic signaling, fasoracetam offers a distinctive mechanism to modulate neural circuits involved in attention, focus, and impulse control. This unique approach has sparked interest in its potential application as an alternative intervention for disorders characterized by cognitive deficits.

Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Modulation:

Fasoracetam’s interactions extend beyond GABA-B receptors to include modulation of mGluRs. These receptors are pivotal in synaptic plasticity, a process critical for learning, memory, and adaptive brain function. Fasoracetam’s influence on mGluRs suggests a potential role in promoting synaptic plasticity, thereby enhancing cognitive processes that underlie learning and memory formation.

This dual-action mechanism, involving both GABAergic and glutamatergic systems, sets fasoracetam apart from conventional treatments. By addressing both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission, fasoracetam offers a comprehensive approach to cognitive enhancement.

Potential Applications:

Fasoracetam’s unique mechanisms of action have spurred interest not only in cognitive enhancement for healthy individuals but also in therapeutic applications. Its interaction with GABA-B receptors positions it as a potential candidate for disorders like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), where GABAergic dysregulation is implicated.

Moreover, the compound’s potential anxiolytic effects, stemming from its GABAergic modulation, suggest applications in anxiety and mood disorders. By targeting the neural systems involved in anxiety regulation, fasoracetam could offer a multifaceted intervention.

Fasoracetam’s Mechanisms of Action and ADHD Pathophysiology

Neuropharmacology is marked by ongoing exploration into the intricate mechanisms underlying cognitive function and disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Fasoracetam, a member of the racetam family, has emerged as a subject of interest due to its unique mechanisms of action and its potential to intersect with the pathophysiology of ADHD. This article delves into the mechanisms through which fasoracetam operates and its potential relevance to ADHD.

Fasoracetam’s Pharmacological Profile:

Fasoracetam’s actions are distinguished by its interactions with neurotransmitter systems, particularly the gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA-B) receptors and the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). GABA-B receptors are integral to inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain, influencing neural balance and fine-tuning neural signaling. By enhancing the sensitivity of GABA-B receptors, fasoracetam augments inhibitory neurotransmission, ultimately impacting attention, focus, and impulse control.

The compound’s modulation of mGluRs also plays a crucial role. Metabotropic glutamate receptors are involved in synaptic plasticity, a process central to learning, memory, and cognitive flexibility. Fasoracetam’s influence on mGluRs suggests the potential to enhance synaptic plasticity, fostering neural adaptability that underlies cognitive processes.

Linking Fasoracetam to ADHD Pathophysiology:

ADHD is characterized by deficits in attention, impulse control, and hyperactivity. These symptoms arise from dysregulation in neural circuits governing executive functions, attentional networks, and inhibitory control. Fasoracetam’s unique mechanisms align with several aspects of ADHD pathophysiology:

  1. GABA-B Receptor Dysregulation: Research suggests that GABA-B receptor dysfunction may contribute to attentional deficits and impulsivity in ADHD. Fasoracetam’s enhancement of GABA-B receptor sensitivity offers a potential avenue to restore the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. This modulation could aid in regulating attention and impulse control.

  2. mGluR Modulation and Learning: Fasoracetam’s interaction with mGluRs is particularly relevant to ADHD’s cognitive challenges. Individuals with ADHD often struggle with learning and memory tasks due to impaired synaptic plasticity. Fasoracetam’s potential to enhance synaptic plasticity through mGluR modulation could address these cognitive deficits by facilitating neural adaptability.

  3. Neural Network Connectivity: ADHD is associated with alterations in neural network connectivity, affecting communication between brain regions. Fasoracetam’s dual mechanism involving GABA-B and mGluR modulation could potentially restore and optimize neural network connectivity. This could have cascading effects on attention, impulse control, and cognitive processes that are impaired in ADHD.

Therapeutic Implications:

Fasoracetam’s alignment with key components of ADHD pathophysiology presents intriguing therapeutic implications. Its potential to enhance GABAergic inhibition and promote synaptic plasticity offers a comprehensive approach to addressing the complex cognitive challenges faced by individuals with ADHD.

However, it’s important to note that while fasoracetam’s mechanisms of action hold promise, clinical evidence supporting its efficacy in treating ADHD is still emerging. Rigorous research, including controlled trials and long-term studies, is essential to ascertain its therapeutic benefits, optimal dosages, and safety profile.

Explanation of Fasoracetam as a Member of the Racetam Family

The racetam family stands as a group of compounds that have intrigued researchers and enthusiasts alike. Fasoracetam, a relatively recent addition to this family, shares commonalities with its racetam counterparts while presenting unique attributes that set it apart.

Origins of the Racetam Family:

The racetam family of compounds finds its roots in the pioneering work of Romanian chemist Corneliu E. Giurgea during the mid-20th century. Giurgea’s studies led to the discovery of piracetam, which is often considered the prototype for the racetam class. Piracetam exhibited cognitive-enhancing effects and opened the door to the exploration of other compounds with similar structures and potential benefits.

Shared Structural Features:

Fasoracetam, like its racetam counterparts, possesses a core pyrrolidone structure. This structural motif is characterized by a cyclic five-membered ring containing a nitrogen atom. The presence of this pyrrolidone ring is a defining feature of racetams, conferring commonality among the various members of the family. The shared structural framework is believed to be a key contributor to their potential cognitive-enhancing effects.

Unique Attributes of Fasoracetam:

While fasoracetam shares the foundational structural element with other racetams, it distinguishes itself through its distinct mechanisms of action and potential benefits. Fasoracetam’s actions, particularly its interactions with gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA-B) receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), set it apart from its racetam counterparts.

GABA-B Receptor Enhancement:

Fasoracetam’s interaction with GABA-B receptors is a notable aspect of its pharmacology. GABA-B receptors are involved in inhibitory neurotransmission, playing a crucial role in neural balance and the regulation of cognitive processes. Fasoracetam enhances the sensitivity of GABA-B receptors, leading to increased inhibitory signaling mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This interaction holds potential implications for modulating attention, impulse control, and cognitive function.

mGluR Modulation and Synaptic Plasticity:

Another facet that sets fasoracetam apart is its modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). These receptors are integral to synaptic plasticity, a process crucial for learning, memory, and cognitive adaptability. Fasoracetam’s influence on mGluRs suggests a potential role in promoting synaptic plasticity, enhancing the brain’s capacity to rewire and adapt in response to new information and experiences.

GABA-B Receptors and Their Role in ADHD Symptoms

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains a complex neurodevelopmental condition characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The quest to understand the intricate neural mechanisms underlying ADHD has led researchers to explore the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA-B) receptors, a class of neurotransmitter receptors with pivotal roles in inhibitory neurotransmission. This article provides an overview of GABA-B receptors and their potential implications in ADHD symptoms.

GABA-B Receptors: The Guardians of Inhibition

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, playing a crucial role in balancing neural activity and preventing excessive excitation. GABA-B receptors are metabotropic receptors that respond to GABA, influencing neural communication through a cascade of intracellular events. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the brain, particularly in regions involved in cognitive control, impulse regulation, and attention.

Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Modulation:

GABA-B receptors operate through a dual mechanism involving both presynaptic and postsynaptic effects. Presynaptically, they modulate neurotransmitter release by inhibiting calcium influx, reducing the release of excitatory neurotransmitters like glutamate. Postsynaptically, GABA-B receptors open potassium channels, hyperpolarizing the cell and dampening neural activity. This dual modulation contributes to fine-tuning neural networks, maintaining optimal excitatory-inhibitory balance, and preventing neural circuits from becoming overly excitable.

Role in ADHD Symptoms:

The intricate interplay of neural circuits and neurotransmitter systems contributes to the emergence of ADHD symptoms. GABA-B receptors are thought to play a significant role in several aspects of ADHD pathophysiology:

  1. Inattention: GABA-B receptors influence neural circuits responsible for attentional processes. Dysfunction in these receptors can lead to deficits in attention regulation and the ability to sustain focus. By modulating neural activity, GABA-B receptors contribute to maintaining optimal attentional networks.

  2. Impulse Control: Impulse control is a hallmark challenge in ADHD. GABA-B receptors in regions like the prefrontal cortex, which governs executive functions and self-regulation, contribute to impulse control by dampening neural excitability. Dysregulation of GABA-B receptors can result in diminished inhibitory control, contributing to impulsive behaviors.

  3. Hyperactivity: GABA-B receptors in the striatum, a region involved in motor control, play a role in regulating movement. Dysregulation of these receptors can contribute to motor overactivity observed in hyperactive individuals with ADHD.

  4. Cognitive Flexibility: ADHD often involves difficulties in cognitive flexibility and task-switching. GABA-B receptors influence the flexibility of neural circuits by modulating synaptic plasticity. Dysfunction in these receptors may hinder the brain’s capacity to adapt and rewire in response to changing demands.

Implications for Treatment:

Understanding the role of GABA-B receptors in ADHD pathophysiology opens new avenues for potential interventions. Modulating GABA-B receptors through pharmacological agents could restore inhibitory balance, regulate attention, and improve impulse control. However, direct manipulation of GABA-B receptors is complex, as these receptors are widespread and have diverse effects.

GABA-B receptors serve as critical regulators of inhibitory neurotransmission, shaping neural circuits and maintaining the delicate balance between excitation and inhibition. Their influence extends to cognitive processes implicated in ADHD, including attention, impulse control, and hyperactivity. As our understanding of these receptors deepens, researchers and clinicians may uncover novel strategies for addressing the intricate neural mechanisms underlying ADHD symptoms, ultimately contributing to more effective and targeted interventions for individuals with this neurodevelopmental disorder.

Distinctive Advantages of Fasoracetam in ADHD Treatment

Interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has led researchers to explore diverse pharmacological approaches. Fasoracetam, a nootropic supplement within the racetam family, has gained attention for its unique mechanisms of action and potential benefits in addressing the multifaceted challenges of ADHD. This article delves into the distinctive advantages that fasoracetam may offer as a treatment option for individuals with ADHD.

1. Targeted GABA-B Receptor Modulation:

Fasoracetam’s interaction with gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA-B) receptors is a cornerstone of its distinctive advantages. Unlike traditional stimulant medications that primarily influence neurotransmitter levels, fasoracetam’s modulation of GABA-B receptors offers a more targeted approach. This modulation enhances inhibitory signaling, promoting neural balance and potentially addressing the inhibitory deficits implicated in ADHD.

2. Comprehensive Symptom Coverage:

ADHD is characterized by a range of symptoms, including inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Fasoracetam’s dual mechanism of action – enhancing GABA-B receptor sensitivity and modulating metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) – suggests a comprehensive approach to symptom management. By addressing inhibitory control and neural adaptability, fasoracetam could potentially alleviate multiple dimensions of ADHD-related challenges.

3. Potential for Long-Term Adaptability:

Fasoracetam’s modulation of mGluRs highlights its potential to enhance synaptic plasticity, the brain’s capacity to rewire and adapt over time. This unique mechanism suggests a possible advantage for long-term treatment strategies. By promoting cognitive flexibility and learning, fasoracetam could contribute to sustained improvements in ADHD symptoms and cognitive function.e

4. Reduced Risk of Tolerance and Dependence:

Traditional stimulant medications used in ADHD treatment can carry the risk of tolerance and dependence, leading to challenges in managing treatment over the long term. Fasoracetam’s mechanisms of action are distinct from stimulants, potentially offering a reduced risk of tolerance development. This could provide a valuable alternative for individuals who require ongoing treatment without the concerns of tolerance-related complications.

5. Potential for Co-Existing Conditions:

ADHD often coexists with other conditions, such as anxiety and mood disorders. Fasoracetam’s potential anxiolytic effects, stemming from its GABAergic modulation, could address not only ADHD symptoms but also comorbid anxiety symptoms. This dual benefit suggests a broader therapeutic impact beyond ADHD management alone.

6. Expanding Therapeutic Options:

The availability of diverse treatment options empowers clinicians to tailor interventions to individual patient needs. Fasoracetam’s emergence as a potential therapeutic option expands the arsenal of interventions available for ADHD treatment. This is particularly valuable for individuals who may not respond optimally to existing treatments or who seek alternatives to traditional stimulant medications.

7. Focus on Cognitive Enhancement:

Beyond symptom reduction, fasoracetam’s potential for cognitive enhancement holds promise for individuals with ADHD. Its ability to impact attention, memory, and cognitive flexibility could offer individuals the opportunity to improve their cognitive skills and overall quality of life.

Fasoracetam’s Non-Direct Influence on Dopamine and Norepinephrine Levels

Fasoracetam’s influence on dopamine and norepinephrine levels is an intriguing aspect of its pharmacological profile. Unlike traditional stimulant medications used to treat conditions like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), which directly impact the levels of these neurotransmitters, fasoracetam’s effect on dopamine and norepinephrine is more nuanced and indirect.

Fasoracetam operates through unique mechanisms, particularly its interactions with gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA-B) receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). These mechanisms contribute to its potential cognitive-enhancing and neuromodulatory effects, which can indirectly influence dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmission.

GABA-B Receptor Modulation: Fasoracetam enhances the sensitivity of GABA-B receptors, which are involved in inhibitory neurotransmission. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, counteracting the effects of excitatory neurotransmitters like glutamate. By enhancing GABA-B receptor function, fasoracetam promotes inhibitory signaling, which could indirectly impact dopamine and norepinephrine levels.

Dopamine and norepinephrine are both involved in reward, attention, and mood regulation. The indirect enhancement of inhibitory signaling by fasoracetam through GABA-B receptor modulation could potentially influence these neurotransmitters’ levels by altering the balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals within neural circuits. This modulation might impact the release and reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine, contributing to changes in their overall availability.

Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor (mGluR) Interaction: Fasoracetam’s interaction with mGluRs adds another layer of complexity to its effects on neurotransmitter systems. Metabotropic glutamate receptors are linked to synaptic plasticity, which is crucial for learning, memory, and neural adaptability. By modulating mGluRs, fasoracetam has the potential to impact neural circuits that involve dopamine and norepinephrine pathways.

The indirect influence on dopamine and norepinephrine through mGluR modulation arises from the interconnectedness of neural networks. Alterations in synaptic plasticity can impact the way neural circuits function, including those that contribute to the release and reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine. Therefore, fasoracetam’s impact on mGluRs could lead to cascading effects on dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmission.


In conclusion, Fasoracetam represents a novel approach to addressing cognitive challenges and neurodevelopmental disorders like ADHD. Its unique mechanisms of action, centered around enhancing GABA-B receptor sensitivity and modulating metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), distinguish it from traditional treatments involving direct manipulation of neurotransmitter levels. While stimulant medications directly impact dopamine and norepinephrine, Fasoracetam operates through indirect pathways, offering a more nuanced and comprehensive influence on neural circuits.

By enhancing GABA-B receptor function, Fasoracetam promotes inhibitory signaling and neural balance, potentially addressing deficits in attention, impulse control, and cognitive flexibility associated with ADHD. Moreover, its interaction with mGluRs suggests a capacity to enhance synaptic plasticity, fostering learning and memory processes critical for cognitive development.

It’s worth noting that Fasoracetam’s application extends beyond ADHD, with potential implications for anxiety and mood disorders. Its distinctive advantages lie in its targeted modulation of neurotransmitter systems, its potential for sustained cognitive enhancement, and its reduced risk of tolerance and dependence compared to traditional stimulant medications.

While the promise of Fasoracetam is intriguing, further research is essential to validate its efficacy, safety profile, and optimal dosages in treating ADHD and other cognitive disorders. Clinical studies are ongoing, and the scientific community’s continued exploration will provide a clearer understanding of Fasoracetam’s potential role in the realm of neuropharmacology. As the field advances, Fasoracetam’s non-direct influence on dopamine and norepinephrine levels offers a fresh perspective on enhancing cognitive function and addressing the complex challenges of neurodevelopmental disorders.


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